Strong Acids and Their Uses

In industrial applications, strong acids are often utilized in various ways as chemical reagents and oxidizers. Among the countless acids that have been discovered or synthesized, there are strong acids and weak acids. Strong acids are more often utilized in industrial manufacturing processes. Acids Acids are chemical substances marked by a potential hydrogen (pH) value …

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Cast Iron Pipe Dimensions

Cast iron pipe, also referred to as grey cast iron pipe due to its grey fractured appearance, is a type of pipe made from an alloy of iron, carbon, and silicon. It has been used since the seventeenth century in various applications, ranging from water distribution systems to wastewater management. Cast Iron Pipe Properties and …

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Pressure Temperature Graphs Explained

Often times, using a graph or diagram can help simplify evaluating the relationship among parameters for a substance, such as the pressure and temperature. A pressure temperature graph and a pressure temperature diagram are two such tools. Pressure Temperature Diagram Another useful visual relating the pressure and temperature of a substance is the pressure temperature …

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Heat of Vaporization Explained

The heat of vaporization is a fundamental property of a liquid which is used to evaluate how much energy is needed to convert the liquid to a vapor. The conversion of a liquid to a vapor is a function of the temperature and pressure, with a higher pressure requiring a higher heat of vaporization. Definition …

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BSP Threads: A Complete Guide

There are various standards of thread systems that manufacturers worldwide follow when producing threaded components like screws, nuts, bolts, fixtures, pipes, and other threaded machines. One of which is the British Standard Pipe (BSP)— a thread standard widely used internationally for plumbing and pipe-fitting applications, except in North America where a different standard called the …

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How to Calculate Mass Flow Rate

The mass flow rate is an important engineering parameter in fluid dynamics, which includes the flow of liquids and gases. When calculating the mass flow rate, understanding the specific scenario and what needs to be determined will help in setting up the equations. Calculating The Mass Flow Rate In fluid mechanics, the mass flow rate …

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Square Tube Deflection Calculator

A square tube is a common structural member used in engineering designs for things like bridges or buildings. Such a member is a special form of a beam, and the general beam deflection formulas can be used when calculating the deflection of a square tube. Components Of The Square Tube Deflection Calculators To calculate the …

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ASTM D2665: A Complete Guide

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) develops various standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services that serve as a basis for product testing, quality control, and product evaluation in different industries. One of which is the ASTM D2665— the ASTM standard for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) plastic drain, waste, and …

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