# Engineering

Steady state flow is the condition where fluid properties at any given point within the system don’t change as time passes. These properties include velocity, pressure, and temperature. One of the most considerable constant properties within the steady state flow system is the mass flow rate, which refers to a lack of accumulation of mass …

## W21x44 Beam Specifications

W21x44 is a rolled structural beam with wide flanges that is used in construction and other applications. W21x44 Beam Size and Dimensions The dimensions and specifications of this structural steel beam are below: Depth 20.70 in Width 6.50 in Area 13.0 in2 Weight 44 lb/ft Web Thickness 0.35 in Flange Thickness 0.45 in Area Moment …

## Miles’ Equation: Equivalent Acceleration for Random Vibrations

Miles’ equation was originally developed by John W. Miles in 1954 to assist him in modeling the structural fatigue of aircraft using only one degree of freedom. The general form of the equation is: where GRMS is the root mean square acceleration, measured in G’s, fn is the natural frequency, Q is the amplification factor …

## Manometer Equation: Calculate Pressure from a Manometer Reading

A manometer is a measuring instrument used to indicate the pressure of a fluid or gas. It indicates the pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure, in the case of an open manometer, or full vacuum, in the case of a closed manometer. Manometers come in analog and digital form. The simplest and most well-known manometer …

## Moody Chart Calculator

What is a Moody Chart A Moody Chart (or Moody Diagram) is a diagram used in the calculation of pressure drop or head loss due to friction in pipe flow. More specifically, a Moody diagram is used to find the friction factor for flow in a pipe. Friction factor is plotted vs. Reynolds number and …

## Moody Chart for Estimating Friction Factors

A Moody Chart (or Moody Diagram) is used to estimate the friction factor for fluid flow in a pipe. The chart represents friction factor as a function of Reynolds number and the ratio between internal pipe roughness and pipe diameter, or relative roughness, ε/D. What is a Moody Chart Used for? The Darcy Weisbach equation …

## Darcy-Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Losses

The Darcy-Weisbach equation is used to calculate the major pressure loss or head loss in a pipe, duct, or tube as a function of the pipe’s length and diameter, the fluid’s density and mean velocity, and an empirical value called the Darcy friction factor. The equation is valid for both laminar flow and turbulent flow. …

## Section Modulus: Calculators and Complete Guide

Section modulus is a geometric property of a cross section used in the design of beams or other flexural members that will experience deflection due to an applied bending moment. The units of section modulus are length^3. There are two types of section moduli: elastic section modulus and plastic section modulus. Elastic section modulus applies …

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