# Engineering

## Conservation of Mass Equation Explained

In engineering, a fundamental concept is the conservation of mass, which states that the mass of a system, whether that system is static or dynamic, will always remain constant. This can be explained using the following equation: Some practical engineering examples of the conservation of mass include solid mechanics, fluid statics, and fluid dynamics. Conservation …

Threaded fasteners work by tightening and allowing both the bolt and nut materials to elongate against each other, creating a clamping force that holds two or more parts together. However, this clamping action causes stress on the fasteners, which can lead to disastrous material failure if not properly managed. This article tackles one of the …

## Drag Equation Explained

The drag induced on an object moving through the air is an important value in aerodynamic calculations. For example, an airplane will need to have enough thrust to overcome the induced drag to either accelerate or maintain its speed. To determine the drag induced on a body, the drag equation is used. Understanding Drag Aerodynamic …

## Moment of Inertia of Tubes

In engineering design, tubes are often used as structural members. Understanding how those members will respond to forces and moments is important for optimizing the overall design. The moment of inertia of a tube is used to express how well it will withstand those forces and moments. Circular tubes and rectangular tubes are used, depending …

## Hydraulic Cylinder Force Calculator

A hydraulic cylinder transmits and scales a unidirectional force. They are used to transmit power in numerous mechanical applications. Hydraulic Cylinder Force Calculator Hydraulic Cylinder Operating Principle Hydraulic cylinders operate on the principle of pressure and effective area, as shown by the following equation: where: In a double-acting hydraulic cylinder, the piston side is the …

## T Beam Moment of Inertia

As a common structural member, a T beam is often utilized in engineering design. To optimize the design of a T beam, it is necessary to understand how the beam will respond to various expected loads. A key response to loading will be the bending about the axes. To determine the bending response of a …

## Stainless Steel Heat Treatment Options

Heat treatment is the process of heating and cooling metal in a controlled environment in order to modify its crystalline structure and mechanical properties to suit the intended application. There are many types of heat treatment processes applicable for specific types of metal and performed at different temperatures, treatment times, and treatment cycles. This article …

## How to Find Relative Humidity

The relative humidity is the ratio of how much water vapor is in the air to how much water vapor the air can hold. This value is in constant flux, and is dependent on a number of factors such as temperature and the dew point. Relative Humidity Defined The relative humidity is the ratio that …

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