# Engineering

## Frictional Loss in Pipes

Frictional loss in pipes refers to the energy lost as fluid flows through a length of the line. Several factors may contribute to this: the […]

## Hazen-Williams Equation Explained

The Hazen-Williams Equation is used to calculate the head loss (pressure loss) of water due to its flow through a straight pipe. It does not

## Manning’s Equation for Pipe Flow

Manning’s equation calculates flow parameters for gravity-driven water flow. The formula input values are pipe or channel dimensions, surface roughness, and flow slope. Solving the

## Polar Moment of Inertia Explained

An object’s polar moment of inertia is its ability to resist deflection due to an applied torque. It is largely based on the cross-section of

## Maximum Shear Stress Theory Explained

Maximum shear stress theory is a framework for studying how ductile materials might fail due to stress. It is an important criterion to follow when

## Hardness vs. Toughness: What’s the Difference?

Hardness and toughness are material properties than sound similar in layman’s terms but are in fact two distinct scientific measures. Tough materials are those that

## Compared: A307 vs. A325

Metal bolts are found in almost every steel structure today, holding our buildings, bridges, railways and so much more together. Not all bolts are created

## Can Turbulent Flow Be Steady?

Inherently, turbulent flow will always be unsteady. It has random fluctuations in speed, kinetic energy, temperature and more, that make perfectly tracking it an impossible

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