# Engineering

## Haaland Equation for Friction Factor

Computing the friction factor of flow through a pipe can be a tricky task. For one, the flow may change as it goes through a pipe, shifting from laminar to turbulent or vice-versa. This is a dimensionless quality that can also be used to define open channel flow. While a number of formulae have been …

## Compared: SDR 26 vs. SDR 35

SDR 26 and SDR 35 are size classifications of PVC pipe. The SDR, or standard dimensional ratio, is the ratio between a pipe’s outer diameter and its minimum wall thickness. As the SDR rating increases, the pipe wall becomes thinner relative to the outer diameter. That means that PVC pipes with lower SDR ratings are …

Flow of fluids, both gaseous and liquid, is generally categorized into two distinct groups: laminar and turbulent. While one might assume that turbulent flow means “faster”, the truth is actually a little more complicated than that. Understanding whether a flow is turbulent and how it behaves is fundamental to the study of aerodynamics and plays …

## When to Use Fanning Friction Factor

In fluids engineering, it is often necessary to calculate the pressure change, or head loss, due to friction. As a fluid flows through a pipe, the interaction of the fluid particles with the wall of the pipe will cause friction, which slows the particles and decreases the pressure. In order to calculate this change in …

## Single Degree of Freedom Systems

When it comes to engineering, it is often ideal to simplify a system in a way that makes it easier to work out any necessary calculations. This process of modeling a system is very common in a variety of engineering fields, and quite possibly the simplest system that can be modeled is a single degree …

## Why Does Flow Become Turbulent?

Fluid dynamics – and more specifically, fluid flow – is the study of how fluids (both liquid and gas) move when subjected to unbalanced forces. Flow can either be laminar or turbulent. Laminar flow occurs when fluid particles are moving together in the same direction in parallel paths. It’s defined as smooth, steady motion where …

## Moody vs. Darcy Friction Factor

In fluids engineering, evaluating the pressure loss due to friction is an important aspect of design. To determine this loss, a factor, such as the Darcy friction factor, is used to simplify the calculations. Understanding how to calculate the Darcy friction factor can assist an engineer with applying it, but a simplification for determining the …

## Darcy vs. Fanning Friction Factor

Friction plays a key role in the flow of a fluid through a pipe or duct. Calculating that friction involves using a friction factor. A friction factor used in fluids engineering to calculate the head loss due to friction in pipes and ducts. As a fluid flows through a pipe, friction due to interaction with …

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